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Photo Voltaic Panels


 

Photovoltaic (PV) is a solid-state semiconductor device that converts sunlight directly into electricity. Usually they are made of silicon combined with other elements which are related to transistors liquid electronic devices (LED's), such as computer chips.
 

 A PV panel is made up of solar cells that convert the sunlight into electrical power. Most common types of Photovoltaic cells used in the PV panels are Monocrystalline and Multicrystalline Silicon.

 

Monocrystalline Silicon  (also called single crystal) panels use solar cells that are cut from a piece of silicon grown from a single and uniform crystal. Monocrystalline panels are among the most efficient (approximately 18%) and yet most expensive on the market. They require the highest purity silicon and have the most involved manufacturing process.

 

Multicrystalline Silicon (also called polycrystalline) panels use solar cells that are cut from multifaceted silicon crystals. They are less uniform in appearance than Monocrystalline cells, resembling pieces of shattered glass. These are the most common solar panels on the market, being less expensive than Monocrystalline silicon. They are also less efficient (approximately 13% to 15%) though the performance gap has begun to close in recent years.

 

The solar cells consist of  silicon which via selective doping receives the characteristics of a semiconductor. When sunlight shines on the surface of the solar cell a potential difference develops between the upper and lower sides of the cell. When the two sides of the solar cell are connected with each other, electricity flows and the cell produces power. To generate the desired voltage several cells are connected in series; the desired current is achieved by connecting the cells in parallel. The sum of the solar modules in an installation makes up the PV generator.

 

A solar tracker can be utilized to increase efficiency by tracking the sunlight automatically.


Thus a sufficiently high amount of tension and energy is produced to supply an entire household or building with electricity. But before the energy from sunlight can be used, it must be processed. The photovoltaic cells deliver direct current, which has to be transformed into useable 50Hz alternating current by a static converter. Thus produced electricity can be used in Grid-tied System or Off-Grid System.


Grid-tied System


A grid-tied PV system's output is directly linked through your meter to the utility distribution lines that normally provides you with electricity for storing any excess power produced by your PV system, On demand the excess current can be drawn from the utility distributions line. The inverter line to the utility  is designed to shut off when the grid does off since the utility distribution in under maintenance. It is the least expensive and the least complicated type of PV system.

 

Grid-Tied Photovoltaic  System consist of PV Module which generates Direct Current (DC) from solar power, the Inverter converts the Direct Current (DC) to Alternative Current (AC) which is commonly used and finally a Meter to measure how much electricity is released to Utility distribution.

Off-Grid System

 

Off-grid system electricity produced by the PV are stored in the battery storage  and utilized at night or on the cloudy days. These systems are more expensive to design and install and typically only make sense where utility power is unavailable.
 

Off-Grid Photovoltaic  System consist of PV Module, the Inverter, Battery for storing the excess electricity produced and an optional AC battery charger which is coupled with inverter for the charging the battery using the Utility distribution electricity.


PV System

 

Photovoltaic Panel

Monocrystalline PV Cell

Multicrystalline PV Cell

Photovoltaic Cell

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